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L'artrosi dell'anca, patologia ed esercizi

Posted on July 27, 2013 at 7:05 AM
L’artrosi è una delle patologie più frequenti a carico delle articolazioni. La prima classificazione dell'osteoartrosi è composta da due gruppi principali: PRIMARIA (artrosi generalizzata e localizzata) e SECONDARIA (in seguito a traumatismi, anomalie di sviluppo, malattie metaboliche e artriti). L'artrosi dell’anca ha varie cause, tra le quali la più frequente è l'artrite reumatoide. Un terzo circa dei pazienti ha una leggera displasia acetabolare (una cavità acetabolare poco profonda) e un altro terzo ha una cavità acetabolare retroversa. Entrambe queste condizioni riducono la superficie di contatto della testa del femore con l’acetabolo, aumentando la pressione di contatto e rendendo l'usura più probabile. La caratteristica principale è la perdita progressiva della cartilagine articolare con una diminuzione dello spazio articolare che diventa doloroso. L'insorgere della rigidità facilita lo sviluppo di osteofiti (speroni ossei) che incrementano la rigidità, rendendo difficile per il paziente compiere movimenti quotidiani come indossare le calze e le scarpe. Viene così ad instaurarsi un quadro generale di “accorciamento”, con deformità in adduzione e rotazione esterna dell’anca, spesso accompagnate da una retrazione in flessione (La riabilitazione in ortopedia, Brotzman e Wilk, 2004). I principali fattori di rischio sono la famigliarità, l'eccesso ponderale, eventuali fratture pregresse o attività sportive/lavorative usuranti, malformazioni congenite o patologie a carico del sistema scheletrico. Le sensazioni più avvertite dal paziente sono: la limitazione funzionale e il dolore di tipo meccanico, presente prevalentemente al carico, che peggiora con l’attività fisica e trae beneficio dal riposo. Questo può essere associato a rigidità mattutina che non si protrae mai oltre i 30 minuti. E' importante ricordare che non sempre l'entità dell'alterazione strutturale correla con l'intensità del dolore(Creamer P.2004).

Qui di seguito riportiamo pochi semplici esercizi da compiere per mantenere una buona articolarità e un buona forza muscolare in ASSENZA DI PROTESI ALL'ANCA(La riabilitazione in ortopedia, Brotzman e Wilk, 2004).

Categories: MEDICINA

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